(i). Introduction: Does it provide appropriate basis for the study?
(ii). Originality: Is the work original and novel? If not why?
(iii). Interest: Is the work of general or specialized interest?
(iv). Research question: Is the research question clearly defined and answered?
(v). Abstract: Does it correctly summarize the study?
(vi). Design: Is the study adequately designed to answer the research question?
(vii). Methods: Are methodological details sufficient? Is any of the statistical analysis presented appropriate and sound? Are any additional statistical tests needed?
(viii). Results: Are these logically presented and answer the research question?
(ix). Discussion: Is the literature, current, appropriately and fairly cited? Are the results clearly and justifiably discussed in the light of published literature?
(x). Conclusions: Are the claims and inferences drawn from study justified and convincing or do they need further evidence? Please explain. Should the authors have drawn any additional conclusions from the data inferred?
(xi). References: Are they up to date and relevant? Has any relevant reference been omitted?
(xii). Overall readability: Is the manuscript clearly and concisely written? If not how could it be improved? Could it be shortened?
PUBLICATION ETHICS MALPRACTICE STATEMENT
The publication of a peer reviewed journal requires continuous work, responsibility, liability and collaboration from all stakeholders or parties: authors, reviewers, editors and board members. The editors have the responsibility of keeping/monitoring the publishing ethics and maintaining the academic record. The Executive and Advisory Editorial Board assume their responsibility on verifying the articles of fraudulent data or plagiarism. The goal of the editorial board is to maintain the publication at the highest publication standards, implying: good quality, original, research based articles, but also corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies, if needed. We appreciate the contributions of every involved party to the work that we publish.
With regards to article publication and authorship, all submitted articles are subjected to strict blind peer review process by at least two reviewers. The rejected articles are not being resent for reviewing. The articles before being sent for reviewing are first checked for plagiarism. Authors should provide all sources of data used in the research. Plagiarism in all its forms is unethical and it is unacceptable.
(i). Authors must ensure that the submitted article is their original work, which has not been previously published;
(ii). Authors must ensure that the submitted article has not been considered for publication elsewhere;
(iii). Authors must state that all data in the paper are real and authentic;
(iv). Authors must report any errors in their published article to the Editors;
(v). Authors should provide revised version of their article, according to the recommendations of the reviewers.
Any manuscript received for reviewing will be treated as confidential document taking note of the followings;
(i). Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors;
(ii). Reviews should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments, so that authors can use them for improving the article;
(iii). Reviewers should inform the editors on any substantial similarity between the manuscript under consideration and any other published article;
(iv). Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the articles.
The journal Editors are responsible as follows:
(i). decide which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published;
(ii). responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication;
(iii). evaluate manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit;
(iv). peer review assists the editors in making editorial decisions and should publish only peer reviewed accepted articles based on the peer review reports to guide in taking decisions;
(v). should have a clear picture of a research’s funding sources;
(vi). must not use unpublished information in the editor’s own research without the express written consent of the author.
PROCESSING AND PAGE CHARGES:
Manuscripts should be submitted with processing fee and page charges to be determined payable into the Journal Bank account to be established.
INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS
(i). Format: Prior to submission, authors who believe their manuscript would benefit from professional editing are encouraged to use language-editing and copyediting services. Obtaining this service is the responsibility of the author, and should be done before initial submission.
(ii). Length: Although there is no page limit for a Regular Paper, it is strongly suggested that a complete manuscript be no less than 5 pages and no more than 10 pages (Times New Roman style, font size 10, double spaced, including figures, tables, and references).
(iii). Sections of Manuscript: Articles should be organized into the following sections:
(a). Reviews and Mini-reviews: Article Title, Authors’ names and institutional affiliations, Abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Main text (divided into subheadings), Conclusion and Recommendations, Acknowledgements (if any), Statement of Competing Interests, List of Abbreviations (if any), References.
(b). Research Articles includes: Article Title, Authors’ names and institutional affiliations, Abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations, Acknowledgements (if any), Statement of Competing Interests, List of Abbreviations (if any), References.
(i). Title (20 Words or Less): The title should accurately, clearly, and concisely reflect the emphasis and content of the article. The title must be brief and grammatically correct. Titles do not normally include; numbers, acronyms, abbreviations or punctuation. They should include sufficient detail for indexing purposes but be general enough for readers outside the field to appreciate what the paper is about. The title should not be more than 20 words in length.
(ii). Authors’ Names and Institutional Affiliations: This should include the full authors’ names (with no titles or qualifications), institutional addresses (Department, Institute, City, Postal code, Country), and e-mail addresses for all authors. Authors and affiliations must be linked using superscript numerals. The corresponding author should also be indicated.
(iii). Abstract and Keywords: The abstract should be comprehensive but concise consisting of no more than 250 words and should be structured to give a brief introduction to the study, main findings of the study, conclusions drawn from the study and their significance. Do not include references, headings and non-standard abbreviation. It should be written in a paragraph using single line spacing. While the abstract is conceptually divided into three sections (Background, Materials and Methods/Principal Findings, and Conclusions/Significance), please do not apply these distinct headings to the abstract within the article file. Please do not include any citations and avoid specialist abbreviations. Also provide 5-7 carefully chosen keywords.
(iv). Introduction: Here, authors should make a case for the study, providing a brief literature survey (avoid citing literature older than ten years, unless absolutely necessary) and background to the study expressing the backdrop against which the study is to be visualized and appraised, the hypotheses and the significance of the research.
(v). Materials and Methods: This section including sampling techniques should be given in sufficient detail to allow these to be replicated by other researchers. The source of the various reagents and materials used in the study should be given, where possible. In addition to providing the place and location where the research was carried out, a detail description of the sample size selection plan is necessary (use Table where necessary).
(vi). Results and Discussion: The results and discussion section should provide details of all the findings that are required to support the conclusion/recommendations and a comprehensive analysis of the results in the light of any previous research. There is no specific word limit for this section, but details of design that are peripheral to the main thrust of the article and that detract from the focus of the article should not be included. In a professional manner, discussions should be considered in relation to other published information and any published initial hypothesis. We advise that this section be written in past tense. Tables, Figures and Plates should be presented immediately following the page where it was first mentioned.
(vii). Conclusion and Recommendations: Conclusion section should bring out the significance of your research article, show how you have brought closure to the research problem, and point out remaining gaps in knowledge by suggesting issues for further research. It also contains the inferences drawn from the factual evidences of the study.
(viii). Acknowledgements: The authors should first acknowledge the source of funding (if any) for the research presented in their article followed by any personal credits.
(ix). Statement of Competing Interests: Include an explicit disclosure of any competing interests (financial or others) that may have influenced the study or the conclusions drawn from the study. If none, state that “the authors have no competing interests”.
(x). List of Abbreviations: Define all non-standard abbreviations in parenthesis on their first appearance in the text as well as provide a list. Standard abbreviations need not to be included in the list.
(xi). References: The reference list should appear at the end of your article. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cited in the body of the article. Each source you cited in the article (with the exception of personal communications) must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Only published or accepted manuscript should be included in the reference list. Articles that have been submitted but not yet accepted should not be cited. That is to say that the general information or common knowledge is not normally documented. Limited citation of unpublished work should be included in the body of the text only as “unpublished data”.
REFERENCE FORMATS AND GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i). The basic concept is that the reference should be sufficiently complete so that the reader could readily find the reference and can judge the authority and objectivity of the reference.
All author names appear as Last name, Initials. For example, if Kushwaha Saket is the primary author and Sani M. Hussaini is the second author, the correct appearance of the author names would be: Kushwaha, S. and Sani, M. H.
(ii). Books: Standard format: Authors, year, Title (in italics), Publisher, City of Publication, Year of Publication, page numbers (if appropriate). Example: Sani, M. H. (2017). Agribusiness Management for Development: No Strategy = No Effectiveness. Stirling-Horden Publishers Ltd., Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, 2017, 346Pp.
(iii). Journal articles: Authors, year “Title of the article”, Journal name (in italics), Volume (Issue), Pages. Example: Kushwaha, S., Ochi, J. E., Abubakar, M. M., and Ayoola, G. B. (1999). Effect of chemical fertilizer and animal wastes application on environmental life support using the “Delphi” technique. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 14(1): 91-98.
(iv). Conference Proceedings: Authors, year “Title of the article”, in Title of conference (in italics), Publisher, and pages. Example: Sani, R. M., Murtala, N. and Akor, O. G. (2002). Poverty alleviation strategy: An economic analysis of cassava production in Dekina LGA, Kogi State. In: Akande, S. O.; Okuneye, P. A. and Adeyeye, V. .A. (eds). Agricultural Development for Poverty Alleviation and Economic Empowerment in Nigeria. Proceeding of the 17th annual conference of Farm Management Association of Nigeria (FAMAN) held at the Sheraton hotel, Abuja, Nigeria, Pp: 176-180.
(v). E-Books: Authors, year Title of E-book (in italics), Publisher, and date of original publication. [Format] Available: Source. Example: T. Eckes, (2018). The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender, Lawrence Erlbaum, pp.
(vi). E-journal: Authors, year “Title of Article”, Title of Journal (in italics), Volume (Issue), pages, and month year.
[Format] Available: Database Name (if appropriate), article number (if given), internet address. [Accessed date of access]. Example: A. Altun, (2018). “Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners’ experience”, Current Issues in Education, 6(12), July 2003. [Online]. [Online]. Available: http://cie.ed.asu.edu/volume6/number12/. [Accessed Dec. 2, 2004].
All tables must be numbered consecutively (in Arabic numbers). Table headings should be placed (centered) above the table. Place tables as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the main text. All Tables should be referred to in the text as Table 1, Table 2, etc.
(a). Figure Numbering: All illustrations must be numbered consecutively, as Figure 1, Figure 2. Place figure title/captions beneath the figure and should be in italics. All illustrations should be original drawings or photographic prints of originals. Photographs should be glossy prints. Photocopies are often not good enough and should be avoided. Do not assemble figures at the back of your article, but place them as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the main text. No part of a figure should go beyond the typing area.
(b). Figure Legends: The aim of the figure legend should be to describe the key messages of the figure, but the figure should also be discussed in the text. Each legend should have a concise title of no more than 15 words. The legend itself should be succinct, while still explaining all symbols and abbreviations. Avoid lengthy descriptions of methods.
(i). English spelling and punctuations are used throughout the paper. (ii). The paper is original, not submitted anywhere else. (iii).The length of the paper is commensurate with content. (iv). The title and headings are brief and catchy. (v). Names and affiliations (including postal codes) of all authors are correct and complete. (vi). Figures are of sufficient quality for printing, with clear resolution of detail. (vii).Abstract and keywords are provided. (viii). All table/figure title/captions and figure legends are provided. (ix).Tables/Figures are properly placed and numbered with brief titles/captions. (x). References are in standard style.
This section describes the process on how manuscripts are handled from submission to publication. First, Author submits a manuscript. Second, journal Editor-in-Chief screens manuscript within one week of being submitted. Each journal article undergoes a preliminary review by the journal Editor-in-Chief. The journal Editor-in-Chief decides among three options for routing the article:
(a). Send Out for Review: Please, take note of the followings:
(i).The manuscript must meet the basic requirements of JASD. At least two reviewers will be located by the journal Editor-in-Chief, who will then send each reviewer a copy of the article.
(ii). If your manuscript has not passed the preliminary review, it will be returned with the reviewers’ comments for revision.
(iii). Rejection without peer review, even though, the manuscript have to go through the peer review process in order to be published, they can be rejected without peer review. It is worthy to note that for high-impact, general science journals, the majority of submitted papers may be rejected in this manner. While this may appear surprising or disturbing, it is essential to understand the underlying reasons and the inevitability of this undesired aspect of the research publication process.
(b). There could be many reasons for rejection without review;
(i). Content of the article is not within the scope of the journal.
(ii). Non-conformity with journal style, format or guidelines.
(iii). Duplication or large overlap with existing work or apparent plagiarism.
(iv). Results are not novel or significant enough; lead to only an incremental advance in field.
(v). Article is too specialized/in-depth or superficial.
(vi). Limited interest to journal target audience.
(vii). Poor quality of research.
(viii). Results or interpretation are too preliminary or speculative.
(ix). Lack of clarity/conciseness in presentation.
(c). Manuscript is peer reviewed: The Editor-in-Chief confirmed.
(d). Journal Editor-in-Chief /Editorial Board decides whether to publish.
(e). Once peer review has been completed, the original author(s) of the article will modify their submission in line with the reviewers’ comments, and this is repeated until the Editor-in-Chief is satisfied.
(f). Review Decisions by Reviewers and Editors
(i). Accept Article in Present Form
The reviewer will decide that the manuscript is ready for publication in its present form when at least two reviewers are in agreement. The Deputy Editor-in-Chief/Editors will sum up the results of the peer review and report them to the Editor-in-Chief. The Secretary will then send an acceptance letter to the author on behalf of the Editor-in-Chief. The article will be moved to final editing for online publication.
(ii). Revision Required
The reviewer will decide that the article is not ready for publication and needs revision when at least two reviewers are in agreement. The Editor-in-Chief will send the reviewers’ comments to the author for revision. The author should include with his or her resubmitted version a new cover letter that includes a point-by-point response to the reviewers’ and Editors’ comments, including an explanation of how you have altered your manuscript in response to these, and an estimation of the length of the revised version with Figures/Tables.
(iii). Declined Final
The reviewers will decide that the article is inappropriate for publication when at least two reviewers are in agreement. No revisions will be requested for further consideration. The article may not be resubmitted without substantial revision.
(iv). Copy Editing and Typesetting
Copy editing seeks to ensure that an article conforms to the house style of the journal, that all of the referencing and labeling is correct, and that there are no spelling or grammatical errors. Typesetting deals with the appearance of the article in the form of: layouts, fonts, headings, etc., both for print and online publication.
Copy editing and typesetting are carried out by Business Editor/ICT, who refine it so that the Text and Figures are readable and clear to those outside the immediate field; choose keywords to maximize visibility in online searches as well as suitable for indexing services; and ensure that the articles conform to house style. The Business Editor/ICT are happy to give advice to authors whose native language are not English, and will edit those articles with special care.
(v). Proof Reading
The first typeset proofs are sent to the author electronically as a PDF. If corrections to the proofs should be minor, advisably, authors should not rewrite or make substantial additions.
The final text and cover proofs will undergo a thorough editorial review before they are accepted and sent to print. All articles are published in full in the print edition and, in PDF and HTML format, in the online edition of the journal.
Copyright is the term used to describe the rights related to the publication and distribution of original works. Most importantly from a publisher’s perspective, copyright governs how authors, publishers and the general public can use, publish and distribute publications. In order for JASD to publish a manuscript, we require publishing rights. This is governed by a publication agreement between the Corresponding Author and JASD. This agreement is accepted by the Corresponding Author at the time of manuscript submission and it deals with publishers’ and authors’ rights and obligations concerning a particular manuscript. By accepting this agreement, authors retain significant rights to use and share their publications.
(a). To publish, reproduce, distribute, display, and store the article in all forms, formats, and media whether now, known or hereafter developed (including but without limitation in print, digital or electronic form) throughout the world.
(b). To translate the article into other languages, create adaptations, summaries or extracts of the article or other derivative works based on the contribution and exercise all of the rights set forth in (a) above in such translations, adaptations, summaries, extracts, and derivative works.
(c). To license others to do any or all of the above.
(d). To assign this license.
(a). To post a copy of the accepted article on his/her own website, an institutional repository or his/her funding body’s designated archive. An Author(s) who archives or self-archives accepted articles must provide a “hyperlink” from the article to the website of JASD.
(b). That the Author(s) and any academic institution where he/she works at the time may reproduce the article for the purpose of course teaching.
(c). To re-use all or part of the article in other works created by the Author(s) for non-commercial purposes, provided the original publication in JASD is acknowledged through a note or citation in a format acceptable to JASD.
LICENSE TO PUBLISH
Journal Name …………………………………………………………………………
Title of Article:………………………………………………………………………..
(a). In consideration of the expenses of reviewing, editing, publishing and distributing the article, the Author(s) grant JASD for the full term of copyright and any extensions thereto, subject to clause (ii) below, the exclusive right and irrevocable license to:
(i). publish, reproduce, distribute, display and store the article in all forms, formats and media, whether now known or hereafter developed (including without limitation in print, digital or electronic form) throughout the world;
(ii). translate the article into other languages, create adaptations, summaries or extracts of the article or other derivative works based on the contribution and exercise all of the rights set forth in (i) above in such translations, adaptations, summaries, extracts and derivative works; to license others to do any or all of the above, and to assign this license.
(b). Ownership of the copyright in the material contained in the Article remains with the Author(s), and, provided that, when reproducing the Article or extracts from it, the Author(s) acknowledges and references publication in the Journal, the Author(s) retains the following nonexclusive rights:
(i). To post a copy of the accepted Article on his/her own website, an institutional repository or his/her funding body’s designated archive. An Author(s) who archives or self-archives accepted articles must provide a “hyperlink” from the article to the website of JASD.
(ii). That the Author(s) and any academic institution where he/she works at the time may reproduce the article for the purpose of course teaching.
(iii). To re-use all or part of the article in other works created by the Author(s) for non-commercial purposes, provided the original publication in JASD is acknowledged through a note or citation in a format acceptable to JASD.
(iv). The Author(s) grant to JASD for the full term of copyright and any extensions thereto the same rights that have been granted in respect of the article as set out in clause 1 above, in and to all supplementary material in any form (including without limitation images, videos, tables and/or graphs) submitted by the Author(s) to JASD with or in connection with the article (“supplementary information”) but on a non-exclusive basis.
(v). The Author(s) warrants and represents that:
(a). The Author(s) is the sole author and owner of the copyright in the article. If the article includes materials of others, the Author(s) has obtained the permission of the owners of the copyright in all such materials to enable the Author(s) to grant the rights contained herein. Copies of all such permissions have been sent to editorial or publisher’s office.
(b). The Author(s) qualifies for authorship, and the article, or its equivalent, has not been submitted for publication elsewhere. If it is accepted for publication by JASD, it, or its equivalent, will not be submitted for publication elsewhere.
(c). All of the facts contained in the article are true and accurate.
(d). Nothing in the article is obscene, defamatory, libelous, violates any right of privacy or infringes any intellectual property rights (including without limitation copyright, patent or trademark) or any other human, personal or other rights of any kind of any person or entity or is otherwise unlawful.
(e). Nothing in the article infringes any duty of confidentiality which the Author(s) may owe to anyone else or violates any contract, express or implied, of the Author(s), and all of the institutions in which work recorded in the article was carried out have authorized publication of the Article.
(f). The Author(s) authorizes JASD to take such steps as it considers necessary, in its own absolute discretion and at its own expense, in the Author(s)’ name and on his or her behalf if it believes that a third party is infringing or is likely to infringe copyright in the article, including but not limited to taking legal proceedings.
(g). The Author(s) hereby consents to the inclusion of electronic links from the article to third-party material wherever it may be located.
(h). The Author(s) warrants that he/she is (check only one option): An agent of my employer with authority to assign the copyright in the article owned by the employer, who is: [name] the sole Author of the article and the sole owner of the copyright in the article. A co-author of the article and a part owner of the copyright in the article, in conjunction with interests held by co-authors, or their employers.
(vi). Submission of this article does not guarantee publication. If the article is withdrawn, rejected or not published within 2 years after acceptance, the license to publish the article is revoked.